Mission and Goals
Developing seismic design technologies to meet the diverse economic and safety needs of owners and society
The PEER mission is to develop and disseminate technologies to support performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE). The approach is aimed at improving decision-making about seismic risk by making the choice of performance goals and the tradeoffs that they entail apparent to facility owners and society at large. The approach has gained worldwide attention in the past ten years with the realization that urban earthquakes in developed countries – Loma Prieta, Northridge, and Kobe – impose substantial economic and societal risks above and beyond potential loss of life and injuries. By providing quantitative tools for characterizing and managing these risks, performance-based earthquake engineering serves to address diverse economic and safety needs.
There are three levels of decision-making that are served by enhanced technologies for performance-based earthquake engineering and that are focal points for PEER research. One level is that of owners or investors in individual facilities (i.e., a building, a bridge) who face decisions about risk management as influenced by the seismic integrity of a facility. PEER seeks to develop a rigorous PBEE methodology that will support informed decision-making about seismic design, retrofit, and financial management for individual facilities. A second level is that of owners, investors, or managers of a portfolio of buildings or facilities – a university or corporate campus, a highway transportation department, or a lifeline organization – for which decisions concern not only individual structures but also priorities among elements of that portfolio. PEER seeks to show how to use the rigorous PBEE methodology to support informed decision-making about setting priorities for seismic improvements within such systems by making clear tradeoffs among improved performance of elements of the system. A third level of decision-making is concerned with the societal impacts and regulatory choices relating to minimum performance standards for public and private facilities. PEER seeks to make technical contributions to development of performance-based codes and standards. The direct beneficiaries of more rigorous approaches to performance-based earthquake engineering are the owners, investors, and risk managers who face these decisions. All of us, of course, ultimately benefit from decisions about seismic risk that better address tradeoffs between the costs of reducing risks and the benefits resulting from seismic improvements.
The clients for PEER advances in PBEE technologies are members of the engineering profession as broadly defined. Performance-based earthquake engineering is bringing about a change in the profession that alters both the role of earthquake engineers (broadening their involvement as consultants for management of earthquake risks) and the demands placed on the profession (changing the methods of risk evaluation, design, and engineering). PEER is working hand-in-hand with business and industry partners to understand how advances in PBEE affect engineering practice and the construction regulatory environment and to identify ways to lessen barriers to adoption and implementation of PBEE. In addition, PEER is very active in educating future generations of earthquake engineers and risk management professionals. As such, PEER seeks to make a major contribution to the development of the earthquake engineering profession.
Despite advances in recent years in the use of performance-based earthquake engineering, existing technologies and methods for PBEE fall short on a number of grounds. Methods for seismic design or evaluation that currently are in widespread use are much less scientific and direct than the rigorous approach that we are developing. Although response of structures to strong ground motions in most cases is expected to be nonlinear, earthquake hazard today is represented by design maps through relatively simplistic single-parameter quantities such as linear spectral response. Likewise, structural evaluation and design commonly use linear analysis adjusted by factors whose values are based on tradition and limited earthquake experience rather than systematic performance considerations. Furthermore, engineering design and assessment generally focus on structural parameters and fail to quantify socio-economic parameters such as direct financial losses, downtime, and casualties. The result of this indirect and empirical approach is that seismic performance outcomes, as demonstrated in recent earthquakes, are highly variable and often at odds with stakeholder expectations.
Seismic design in a technologically advanced society should be more scientifically based. It should provide information on expected seismic performance, measurable in terms that are meaningful to those who must make decisions about performance of facilities, networks or campuses, or the built environment in a broad context. And it should provide options for selecting optimal seismic performance to meet the diverse needs of owners and society.
To meet this objective, we have visualized the implementation of performance-based earthquake engineering as a process involving distinct and logically related steps, illustrated in Figure 1.1. The first step is definition of the seismic hazard, which we have represented by the term intensity measure. The second step is determination of engineering demand parameters (e.g., deformations, velocities, accelerations) given the seismic input. This leads naturally to definition of damage measures such as permanent deformation, toppling of equipment, or cracking or spalling of material in structural components and architectural finishes. Finally, these damage measures lead to quantification of decision variables that relate to casualties, cost, and downtime.
An essential element of performance-based earthquake engineering is the integration of issues across disciplinary boundaries. The central column of the figure suggests various steps that might be involved in a performance assessment of a system for a single earthquake event. The left side of the figure shows discrete variables that PEER has defined as part of its framework for performance-based earthquake engineering. The right side of the figure identifies the traditional disciplinary contributions to the problem. The solution of the earthquake problem clearly is a multi-disciplinary endeavor.
The PEER programs in research, education, industry partnerships, and outreach are geared to producing the technology and human resources necessary to transition from current design and assessment methods to performance-based methods. The primary goal is to produce and test through research the fundamental information and enabling technologies required for performance-based earthquake engineering. The Education Program promotes earthquake engineering awareness in the general public, and attracts and trains undergraduate and graduate students to conduct research and to implement research findings developed in the PEER program. The Business and Industry Partner Program involves earthquake professionals, relevant industry, and earthquake information users in PEER activities to ensure the utility of the research and to speed its implementation. The Outreach Office presents the PEER activities and products to a broad audience including students, researchers, industry, and the general public.
Ultimately, a PEER objective is to facilitate the development of practical guidelines and code provisions that will formalize performance-based earthquake engineering in practice, replacing some of the first-generation documents on this approach [e.g., FEMA 273, ATC 32, ATC 40, FEMA 354]. PEER is working closely with other organizations, including the Applied Technology Council and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, to develop and implement methodology that will form the basis of next-generation performance-based guidelines. Additionally, PEER produces models and data that are useful, useable, and used in industry. The process is aided by the involvement of practicing earthquake professionals in our program, who help guide and incorporate our research advances as they occur. As a result, the PEER program is an important contributor to national, state, and local efforts to reduce earthquake hazards that threaten the interests of the government, industry, and the general public.