Moving
Toward Performancebased Engineering 

The earthquake demands are determined from the National Seismic Hazard Maps developed by USGS. A basic response spectrum is defined, which has spectral ordinates at 5% damping for different probabilities of occurence and soil conditions at T= 0.2 seconds and T=1 second. Spectral values at all other periods are determined using the empirical relations used to define the spectrum. The approach in FEMA 273 is displacementbased, and subjective factors are used to assess the uncertainty. For example, the roof drift is given by: d_{roof} = C_{0}C_{1}C_{2}C_{3}C_{4}Sd_{elastic} Where C_{0}C_{1}, etc. are the subjective factors used to address uncertainty and Sd_{elastic} is the elastic spectral displacement. FEMA
273 also defines nonlinear dynamic and static pushover analysis methods
in addition to the conventional elastic methods. 