Project Title/ID Number 3D Soil Simulation Models in OpenSees—2212003
Start/End Dates 10/1/03—9/30/04
Project Leader Boris Jeremic (UCD/F)
Team Members Qing Liu (UCD/GS), Matthias Preisig (UCD/GS), Zhao Cheng (UCD/GS), Ian Tucker (UCD/US)

F=faculty; GS=graduate student; US=undergraduate student; PD=post-doc; I=industrial collaborator; O=other

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1. Project Goals/Objectives:

We note that during last year we have performed a number of static and dynamic analysis of single pile and pile group foundation systems, in order to gain confidence in our numerical modeling, In addition to that a detailed 3D models for foundation systems for Humboldt Bay and I-880 bridges are being built and made ready for various simulations. A fully coupled formulation and implementation (upU) has been finished and partially tested. This formulation is undergoing more verifications and validation and will be used in near future simulations of pile foundations. We are also working on large deformation issues, as they are present in cases of kinematic loading of soils on pile groups.

2. Role of this project in supporting PEER’s mission (vision):

This project forms one of the basic elements of PEER's mission in that it creates computational tools that are used to assess the performance of the engineering systems.

3. Methodology Employed:

Methodologies used are based on rational mechanics and computer sciences and are implemented into a versatile computer platform. Current work is also focusing on making those implemented formulations and algorithms more accessible to practicing engineers by creating a set of specialized graphical modules that link directly to OpenSees but hide the details from practicing engineers.

4. Brief Description of past year’s accomplishments (Year 6) & more detail on expected Year 7 accomplishments:

During last year, we have developed a basis for large deformation analysis of inelastic solids (including soils) and have also verified our coupled formulation (u-p-U). These two formulations are being merged right now in order to be able to analyze lateral spreading kinematic loading cases on structural foundations during liquefaction.

In addition to that we have incorporated the Domain Reduction Method into OpenSees and enhanced it to be used with inelastic soil models,

For example, figure below show results of vertical wave propagation in soft and stiff soils. The plotted lines are the time histories of displacements from the depth of 30 meters to the surface. The seismic amplification in soft soil (clay) is apparent!

Figure 1. Seismic wave propagation resulting from the same earthquake acting on a stiff and soft soil site

The methodology allows for 3D wave propagation analysis with inelastic effects (plasticity) and choice of free field (like the one above) or full interaction with inelastic structures.

5. Other Similar Work Being Conducted Within and Outside PEER and How This Project Differs:

This project is part of larger effort centered around the OpenSees development and the analysis of bridge structures.

6. Plans for Year 8 if project is expected to be continued:

Continuing development of computational geo-mechanics formulations and implementations. These will include continuing development on a number of fronts, related to the core PEER mission. There are two main thrusts, related to the:

Specific developments can be organized as follows:

  1. Mechanics (formulation, implementation, verification, validation and application) of porous, coupled media (large deformations, full coupling of solid and fluid) and application to lateral spreading cases).
  2. Stochastic inelasticity of soils (and other solids and structures), using stochastic differential equations, trace propagation of uncertainties within simulation process in closed form (and then numerically after being discretized into FEM models)
  3. Seismic wave propagation and Soil-Foundation-Structure interaction using Domain Reduction Method, free field versus near field motions, influence of those on simulation efforts.
In addition to that, implementation testing will continue and be expanded.

7. Describe any actual instances where you are aware your results have been used in industry:

There is a lot of interest from Caltrans, USGS and some private companies in using our developments. I am not sure if the programs and results have actually been used yet but I suspect that in near future they will.

8. Expected Milestones & Deliverables:

We plan to continue to publish (on the web) a series of our models for testbed bridge foundations. In addition to that, a database of models will soon be submitted to the CVS repository. In addition to that we are preparing a detailed report on work performed in last year and will submit it to PEER by the end of November.

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