"The August 17, 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey earthquake (Mw = 7.4) caused
an immediate, countrywide blackout of the transmission system due to high-voltage
substation damage and power plants tripping off."*
* O'Rourke, T. D. et al. Water, Gas, Electric Power and Telecommunications Performance. Chapter 16 of the 1999 Kocaeli Turkey, Earthquake Reconnaissance Report. Earthquake Spectra, Supplement A to Volume 16, December 2000. pp. 377-402.