This work presents the development of a simplified procedure for the analysis of liquefaction–induced lateral spreading using a beam on nonlinear Winkler foundation approach. A three-dimensional finite element model, considering a single pile in a soil continuum, is used to simulate lateral spreading and two alternative lateral load cases. Sets of p – y curves representative of the soil response in the 3D model are computed for various soil–pile systems. The affects of pile kinematics on these curves are evaluated and a computational procedure for p – y curves is proposed. The computed curves are compared to p – y curves defined by existing methods commonly used in practice to evaluate the applicability of these methods to lateral spreading analysis.
Comparison of the p – y curves resulting from homogenous and layered soil profiles, in which a liquefied layer is located between two unliquefied layers, is used to identify reductions in the ultimate lateral resistance and initial stiffness of the p – y curves representing the unliquefied soil due to the presence of the liquefied layer. These reductions are characterized in terms an exponential decay model. A simple procedure utilizing dimensionless parameters is proposed as a means of implementing appropriate reductions for an arbitrary soil profile and pile diameter. Beam on non-linear Winkler foundation analyses of lateral spreading are conducted to validate and demonstrate the use of the proposed reduction procedure.
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